FactsOfIsrael.com - Democracy

Democracy

"Israel is the only democracy in the Middle East" - this sentence is often heard, but what does it really mean? While desiging FactsOfIsrael.com I had to ask myself the above question, and I did some research to come up with an answer.

Raymod Aron, a contemporary french philosopher, describes in his "Introduction a la philosophie politique" 4 main ingredients that are needed in a true Democracy. I will describe those ideas and see how they are applicable in the case of the State of Israel.

In a Democracy, the idea of freedom is introduced. Furthermore, 4 different ideas of freedom are needed:

Political freedom

To have political freedom is to be able to participate in elections or to be part of the ruling party. On 2/2002 Israel had 15 parties in the "Knesset", its parliament. Every Israeli citizen has the right to vote or to be a candidate, including its 980,000 Muslim citizens.

Israel has an electoral system based on country-wide proportional representation. For the purpose of elections Israel is a single voting area, and the number of seats each party receives in the Knesset is determined on the basis of its proportion of the total vote. The only limitation is the 1.5% qualifying threshold, by which a party must receive at least 1.5% of the vote to be elected. According to this system, the voters elect a party slate and not a particular candidate.


The Knesset in solidarity with the U.S.
after the heinous 9/11 attacks

Below we can see the results of the last 1999 elections, but click here for more details on the Israeli political spectrum, the party lists, the left, the center and the right, the religious parties, the Sephardic parties, the Immigrant parties, the Arab Parties and more. Note that the Israeli political spectrum changes extremely fast, click here for example to get details on the parties running in 1996.

None of Israel's Arab neighboors have free democratic elections (Mauritahnia, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Kahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Djibouti, Somalia - see maps for locations).

Party

Percentage

Number of Votes

Mandates
(120 Total)

20.20%

670484

26

14.10%

468103

19

13%

430676

17

7.60%

253525

10

5.10%

171705

6

5%

167748

6

5%

165622

6

4.20%

140307

5

3.70%

125741

5

3.40%

114810

5

3%

100181

4

2.60%

87022

3

2.60%

86153

4

1.90%

66103

2

1.90%

64143

2

Figures taken from the Knesset's web site Here's a description of most Israeli parties that passed the 1.5% qualifying threshold in the 1999 elections. I will describe the parties going from left to right of the political spectrum:

United Arab List:: (5 mandates) An Arab party which includes Abdel Wahab Darawshe, who had been a member of the Labor Party. In the elections to the 14th Knesset it ran together with part of the Islamic Movement, and together they won four seats.

National Alliance:: (2 mandates) An Arab party formed before the elections to the 14th Knesset. It demands that Israel become a state of all its citizens, rather than define itself as a Jewish state. In the elections to the 14th Knesset it ran together with Hadash and had two Knesset seats.

Democratic Front:: (3 mandates) The Israel Communist Party, together with other political groups. A predominantly Arab party, though No. 3 on its list is a Jewish woman. In the elections to the 14th Knesset (1996) it ran together with Balad and together they won 5 seats.

Meretz:: (10 mandates) A left-wing Zionist party, which places emphasis on human rights, social welfare, the separation of religion and state, and the peace process. It was formed through the merging of three parties: Ratz (Citizens' Rights, established by Shulamit Aloni), the socialist Mapam, and the liberal Shinui. In the 14th Knesset (1996) it had nine seats.

Labor Party: - part of One Israel (26 mandates). A social-democratic party, with roots going back to the early days of Zionism. Its recent leaders were Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres. Under the leadership of Ehud Barak, Israel's previous prime minister, it redefined itself as "New Labor." It had 34 seats in the 14th Knesset (1996) and ran in the elections to the 15th Knesset in the framework of "One Israel" -- an alignment with Gesher and Meimad.

Gesher: - part of One Israel (26 mandates). An ethnic Moroccan party formed before the elections to the 14th Knesset (1996) by David Levy, formerly a prominent member of the Likud. In the elections to the 14th Knesset it ran in a single list with the Likud and Tsomet, and was represented in the Knesset by four members. It was a member of the 14th Knesset government, but left it. In the elections to the 15th Knesset it ran in a single list with Labor and Meimad.

Meimad: - part of One Israel (26 mandates). A moderate national-religious party formed before the elections to the 13th Knesset. Meimad is a dovish party which favors a modification of the religious status quo. In the elections to the 13th Knesset (1992) it failed to pass the 1.5% qualifying threshold. It ran in the elections to the 15th Knesset (1999) in a single list, One Israel, with Labor and Gesher.

Center Party: (6 mandates). A new centrist party, most of whose founding members left the Likud, but which was joined by several former members of the Labor Party and new figures in Israeli politics. It is headed by former defense minister Yitzhak Mordechai, who is also ran for prime minister. There were six MKs (Members of the Knesset) -- former members of the Likud, Tsomet, Gesher, and the Labor Party -- who were candidates of the new party.

Shinui: (6 mandates). A small liberal party that demands that Haredi parties be left out of the next government, which is led by media personality Tommy Lapid and MK Avraham Poraz, formerly from Meretz. Lapid has pitched the party as the leader in a populist crusade to stem the growing influence of the Jewish Ultra-Orthodox parties on Israeli society and politics.

Shas: (17 mandates). A Sephardi Haredi party, founded before the elections to the 11th Knesset (1984). Sephardim are Jews from Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia) and Haredim are Jewish religious Ultra-Orthodox. It has been actively engaged in the battle against the involvement of the High Court of Justice in religious matters. The positions of its spiritual leader, Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, regarding the peace process are moderate, but most of the party's supporters are right-wingers. It had 10 seats in the 14th Knesset and is a member of the current government. The recent convinction and sentencing of party leader Aryeh Deri for bribery and fraud had a significant effect on support for the party. The 'Deri effect' had increased the party's standing amongst the Sephardi electorate, and it won 17 seats in the 1999 elections, becoming Israel's third party (in size).

United Torah Judaism: (5 mandates). A haredi (Ultra-Orthodox) party, which has existed since the beginning of the century. It is primarily concerned with religious issues and in the battle against the drafting of yeshiva students to the IDF.

Yisrael Ba'aliya: (6 mandates). A new immigrants party founded by Natan Sharansky before the elections to the 14th Knesset (1996) - its main concern is immigrants welfare. In its political positions it is moderate Right. In the 14th Knesset it had seven seats and all its members were from the former Soviet Union. In its new slate for the 15th Knesset there was Ethiopian representation as well.

Likud: (19 mandates). A right-wing party formed in 1973 through the fusion of Menachem Begin's Herut Movement, the Liberal Party, and several other political groups. In the past it was the most right-wing party in the Knesset, but since 1977 has become much more pragmatic. It was led by Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, who also became Israel's prime minister. It had 22 seats in the 14th Knesset (1996) under the Likud-Gesher-Tsomet alignment of 32 seats. It is Ariel Sharon's (Israel's Prime Minister as of 4/2002) party as well.

National Religious Party: (5 mandates). A religious Zionist party, with roots going back to the early days of Zionism. Since the mid-70s it has shifted to the extreme Right, and is an advocate of keeping the West Bank and Gaza. It has recently moved a little more to the center. It had nine seats in the 14th Knesset (1996).

Israel Our Home: (4 mandates). A new immigrants' party recently founded by Avigdor Lieberman, who was a member of the Likud and director-general of the Prime Minister's Office. The party is extreme right-wing and expresses displeasure with the country's legal system.

National Unity: (4 mandates). An extreme right-wing party that is an advocate of keeping the West Bank and Gaza.

One Nation: (2 mandates). An extreme right-wing party that advocates the voluntary transfer of the Palestinians from Israel, the West Bank and Gaza.

Raymond Aron also listed three additional pre-requisites for a Democracy: Security (freedom from persecution from the majority), Social freedom, and Autonomy freedom. I won't go into detail on the above until my next update of the site, but Israel meets all of the above requirements.


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